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桁架机械手

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:world-voip.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)由主(zhu)体(ti)(ti)、驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)系统(tong)和(he)控(kong)制(zhi)系统(tong)三(san)个(ge)基(ji)本部分(fen)(fen)组(zu)成(cheng)。按机(ji)器(qi)人结构分(fen)(fen)类为直角坐(zuo)标(biao)型(xing),机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)沿二维直角坐(zuo)标(biao)系移动(dong)(dong)。主(zhu)体(ti)(ti)部分(fen)(fen)通(tong)常(chang)采用(yong)龙门式结构,由y向(xiang)横(heng)梁与(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)、z向(xiang)滑枕、十字(zi)滑座、立柱、过(guo)渡(du)连接板和(he)基(ji)座等部分(fen)(fen)组(zu)成(cheng),z向(xiang)的(de)直线运(yun)动(dong)(dong)皆为交流伺服电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)通(tong)过(guo)蜗轮(lun)(lun)减速(su)器(qi)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)齿轮(lun)(lun)与(yu)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁、z向(xiang)滑枕上固(gu)定的(de)齿条作滚动(dong)(dong),驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)移动(dong)(dong)部件沿导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)快速(su)运(yun)动(dong)(dong)。移动(dong)(dong)部件为质量较轻(qing)的(de)十字(zi)滑座和(he)z向(xiang)滑枕,滑枕采用(yong)由铝合金拉制(zhi)的(de)型(xing)材。横(heng)梁采用(yong)方(fang)钢型(xing)材,在横(heng)梁上安(an)装有导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)和(he)齿条,通(tong)过(guo)滚轮(lun)(lun)与(yu)导(dao)轨(gui)(gui)接触,整个(ge)机(ji)械(xie)手(shou)都悬挂在其上。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)(you)于桁架机械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度快(kuai),加(jia)速度大,加(jia)减速时(shi)间(jian)短。当输(shu)(shu)送(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件时(shi),惯量大,因此,伺(si)服(fu)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)电机要(yao)有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)和制(zhi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)力(li),支撑元件也要(yao)有足够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度及(ji)强度。只有这样(yang),才能(neng)(neng)使伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机满足桁架机械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高响应(ying)、高刚度及(ji)高精(jing)(jing)度要(yao)求。在选择合适伺(si)服(fu)电动(dong)(dong)(dong)机的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况下,根据(ju)物料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距(ju)离和运(yun)(yun)行节拍(pai),计算出伺(si)服(fu)系(xi)(xi)统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移和轨迹,对(dui)驱(qu)动(dong)(dong)(dong)器(qi)PID参数进行动(dong)(dong)(dong)态(tai)(tai)调整。桁架机械(xie)(xie)手根据(ju)接收(shou)到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移、速度指令,经变化、放大并调整处理后,传(chuan)递给运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)单元,通过(guo)(guo)光纤(xian)传(chuan)感器(qi)对(dui)运(yun)(yun)行状态(tai)(tai)进行实(shi)时(shi)检测(ce),在高速搬(ban)运(yun)(yun)过(guo)(guo)程(cheng)中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)部件在极短的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间(jian)内到达给定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度,并能(neng)(neng)在高速行程(cheng)中瞬(shun)间(jian)准停,通过(guo)(guo)高分辩(bian)率绝对(dui)式(shi)编码器(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插补运(yun)(yun)算,控制(zhi)机械(xie)(xie)误差和测(ce)量误差对(dui)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)(dong)精(jing)(jing)度的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响。由(you)(you)于被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件不(bu)同,质量也不(bu)同,因此,桁架机械(xie)(xie)手有多种规格和系(xi)(xi)列。在选择时(shi),根据(ju)被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加(jia)工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节拍(pai)来选取。但机械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹持(chi)方式(shi),则根据(ju)被(bei)输(shu)(shu)送(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结构及(ji)机床夹具定夹方式(shi)来设计(见(jian)图2)。

机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)能够借助可(ke)(ke)(ke)编程序来处(chu)理和(he)执行任务(wu)。机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)主要由(you)手(shou)(shou)图 1 臂(bei)、回转装(zhuang)置、运动(dong)部件及驱(qu)动(dong)部件组成。通过对(dui)(dui)工(gong)件外(wai)形(xing)或工(gong)件上(shang)定位(wei)(wei)支撑(cheng)点定位(wei)(wei)夹(jia)(jia)持工(gong)件。例如,在汽车发动(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)加工(gong)柔(rou)性自动(dong)线(xian)物流输送中,桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)会根据(ju)缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲轴(zhou)等工(gong)件的(de)外(wai)形(xing)特点,选取不(bu)同(tong)(tong)的(de)定位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持方式。柔(rou)性机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)采用(yong)气缸(gang)和(he)电机(ji)(ji)(ji)进行定位(wei)(wei)和(he)夹(jia)(jia)持模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)的(de)切换(huan)(huan)驱(qu)动(dong),一套机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)可(ke)(ke)(ke)完成不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)工(gong)件搬运工(gong)作。夹(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)可(ke)(ke)(ke)根据(ju)产品(pin)质量和(he)外(wai)形(xing)的(de)大小采用(yong)系列化设计,机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)上(shang)的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)安装(zhuang)方式相同(tong)(tong),针对(dui)(dui)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)系列的(de)工(gong)件,只(zhi)需切换(huan)(huan)相应的(de)夹(jia)(jia)持定位(wei)(wei)模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)即(ji)可(ke)(ke)(ke),满足(zu)快(kuai)速切换(huan)(huan)的(de)需要。这样,当加工(gong)不(bu)同(tong)(tong)品(pin)种(zhong)的(de)工(gong)件,只(zhi)须变换(huan)(huan)夹(jia)(jia)持模(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)(mo)块(kuai)就可(ke)(ke)(ke)实(shi)现,提高(gao)了桁架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)的(de)柔(rou)性化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线(xian)桁架机械手(shou)输送装(zhuang)置(zhi)的发展(zhan)及现状

自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)发(fa)展,经历了(le)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)两(liang)个(ge)时代(dai)。就目(mu)(mu)前(qian)而(er)言, 在国内二者均有之。刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)分(fen)(fen)为棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪(zhua)、摆(bai)杆、抬起步伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道等(deng)形式(shi)。随着加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)发(fa)展,由其(qi)组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)逐步替(ti)代(dai)组(zu)(zu)合(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),它(ta)以(yi)适应(ying)小批量(liang)多(duo)品(pin)种的(de)(de)优点,得(de)到市场的(de)(de)广泛(fan)认可(ke),并(bing)称其(qi)为柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种以(yi)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)组(zu)(zu)成的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),就其(qi)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)或(huo)(huo)(huo)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)带依然为刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)可(ke)谓(wei)是(shi)(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。当今的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了(le)飞跃(yue),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)形式(shi)以(yi)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou))并(bing)存,或(huo)(huo)(huo)纯柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),即输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统全(quan)部(bu)由桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)组(zu)(zu)成,这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)(shi)真正(zheng)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),即主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)系(xi)统也柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)(shi)高(gao)速(su)加(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心(xin)(xin)配(pei)以(yi)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song),又(you)称之为敏捷(jie)(jie)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)(shi)敏捷(jie)(jie)制(zhi)造系(xi)统的(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)(yao)组(zu)(zu)成部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距可(ke)根(gen)据机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)配(pei)置(zhi)(zhi)随意改变(bian)(bian),自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上的(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)之间的(de)(de)安装(zhuang)位置(zhi)(zhi)不再(zai)象(xiang)刚(gang)(gang)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)那样,按照输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)步距或(huo)(huo)(huo)步距倍数(shu)的(de)(de)要(yao)(yao)(yao)求进(jin)(jin)行严格(ge)的(de)(de)安装(zhuang),且输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)速(su)度也可(ke)根(gen)据生产节拍及输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)距离而(er)改变(bian)(bian)。而(er)真正(zheng)体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)重要(yao)(yao)(yao)一面是(shi)(shi),当被(bei)加(jia)工(gong)零件(jian)的(de)(de)产品(pin)改变(bian)(bian)后(hou),输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不会不适应(ying)而(er)全(quan)部(bu)更换,只要(yao)(yao)(yao)改变(bian)(bian)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)程(cheng)序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)局部(bu)结构即可(ke)。采(cai)用(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)更先进(jin)(jin)的(de)(de)一面是(shi)(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)化、智(zhi)能化的(de)(de)协调统一。因此,桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)才在当今柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)上越来越多(duo)地被(bei)采(cai)用(yong),使(shi)整个(ge)生产过(guo)程(cheng)通过(guo)信(xin)息(xi)(xi)流(liu)系(xi)统进(jin)(jin)行控(kong)制(zhi)。在加(jia)工(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)过(guo)程(cheng)中(zhong)(zhong),所需各种信(xin)息(xi)(xi)收集、处(chu)理(li)、反(fan)馈,并(bing)通过(guo)电子计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或(huo)(huo)(huo)其(qi)他(ta)控(kong)制(zhi)装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)(液压、气压装(zhuang)置(zhi)(zhi)等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)或(huo)(huo)(huo)运输(shu)(shu)设备(bei)实(shi)行分(fen)(fen)级(ji)控(kong)制(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)(xi)流(liu)系(xi)统分(fen)(fen)为由中(zhong)(zhong)央管(guan)理(li)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元控(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各数(shu)控(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)以(yi)及信(xin)息(xi)(xi)传(chuan)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)网络组(zu)(zu)成。目(mu)(mu)前(qian),汽车制(zhi)造业中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)工(gong)发(fa)动(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖及曲轴(zhou)等(deng)大批量(liang)关(guan)键零件(jian)的(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采(cai)用(yong)了(le)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)(xie)手(shou)输(shu)(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)(song)(见图3)。

2. 国内外的差距

当下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan)很快(kuai),技(ji)术水平有(you)了很大(da)的(de)(de)(de)提高,与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)变得越(yue)来越(yue)小,甚至有(you)些机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有(you)什么(me)差(cha)距(ju)。特别是(shi)国(guo)(guo)(guo)家重大(da)科(ke)技(ji)专(zhuan)项的(de)(de)(de)开(kai)展(zhan),为(wei)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)上(shang)档(dang)次上(shang)水平提高了加速度(du),成(cheng)绩(ji)显而(er)易见。加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)这几年(nian)发展(zhan)的(de)(de)(de)特别快(kuai),但(dan)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术水平和(he)(he)档(dang)次,较(jiao)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)差(cha)距(ju)还(hai)很明(ming)显,国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)较(jiao)为(wei)普遍,而(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)却(que)为(wei)数不多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)汽车生产市场所采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)的(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口(kou)。如无(wu)锡(xi)柴油(you)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)缸(gang)体缸(gang)盖柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)由(you)德国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公司总承包,由(you)BZ800加工(gong)(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专(zhuan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、清洗机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、拧(ning)紧(jin)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、试漏(lou)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、压(ya)装(zhuang)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)在(zai)线(xian)(xian)检(jian)具、辅机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)及珩磨(mo)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组成(cheng)。输(shu)送(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)空中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)。仅以汽车制(zhi)造业而(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内(nei)生产的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可(ke)数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)和(he)(he)沈阳机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)等生产出了该方面的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在(zai)生产实际(ji)中(zhong)得到了应用(yong)(yong)。图4是(shi)大(da)连机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)集团(tuan)生产的(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸(gang)体加工(gong)(gong)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加工(gong)(gong)两种缸(gang)体,分别为(wei)四缸(gang)和(he)(he)六缸(gang),其输(shu)送(song)采(cai)(cai)用(yong)(yong)空中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)两端(duan)为(wei)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚(gun)道(dao)等形式。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)两个(ge),一(yi)个(ge)上(shang)料(liao),一(yi)个(ge)下料(liao)。它的(de)(de)(de)成(cheng)功,标志着(zhe)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产由(you)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)柔性(xing)(xing)(xing)加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)开(kai)始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际(ji)水准迈进。

上述提及(ji)的(de)(de)(de)只是数量上的(de)(de)(de)比较(jiao),其实真正的(de)(de)(de)原(yuan)因还(hai)是国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)技(ji)术(shu)水平与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外有着一定的(de)(de)(de)差距。柔(rou)性加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手,也是从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进口的(de)(de)(de)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手。那时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还(hai)没有专门(men)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)厂家(jia)。如今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂家(jia)的(de)(de)(de)涌出(chu),为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔(rou)性加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)带来了(le)希望,进而缩小了(le)与(yu)国(guo)(guo)(guo)外在生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手方面的(de)(de)(de)差距,国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手在柔(rou)性加工(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动线(xian)的(de)(de)(de)应用(yong)也越来越多,从而打(da)破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市(shi)场被外国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)(de)(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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